G protein-coupled receptors can potentially activate phospholipase D (PLD) by a number of routes. We show here that the native M3 muscarinic receptor in 1321N1 cells and an epitope-tagged M3 receptor expressed in COS7 cells substantially utilize an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-dependent route of PLD activation. This pathway is activated at the plasma membrane but appears to be largely independent of G, phospholipase C, Ca2+ q/11, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinases, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase. We report instead that it involves physical association of ARF with the M3 receptor as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and by in vitro interaction with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the receptor's third intracellular loop domain. Experiments with mutant constructs of ARF1/6 and PLD1/2 indicate that the M3 receptor displays a major ARF1-dependent route of PLD1 activation with an additional ARF6-dependent pathway to PLD1 or PLD2. Examples of other G protein-coupled receptors assessed in comparison display alternative pathways of protein kinase C- or ARF6-dependent activation of PLD2.
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