Initiation factor 2B activity is regulated by protein phosphatase 1, which is activated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway in insulin-like growth factor 1-stimulated neuronal cells.
We have previously demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) induces eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) activation in neuronal cells through the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3 pathway as well as by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activating kinase (MEK)/MAPK signaling pathway (Quevedo, C., Alcázar, A., and Salinas, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19192-19197). This paper addresses the mechanism involved in IGF1-induced eIF2B activation via the MEK/MAPK cascade in cultured neurons treated with IGF1 and demonstrates that extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1 and -2) immunoprecipitates of IGF1-treated neuronal cells promote this activation. This effect did not directly result from eIF2B phosphorylation by ERK immunoprecipitates. In addition, recombinant ERK1 and -2 neither activate eIF2B nor phosphorylate it. Endogenous protein phosphatase 1 and 2A catalytic subunits (PP1C and PP2AC, respectively) were co-immunoprecipitated with ERK1 and -2, and the association of ERK with PP1C was stimulated by IGF1 treatment, resulting in increased PP1 activity. ERK immunoprecipitates incubated with PP1 inhibitors did not activate eIF2B, indicating that PP1C activates eIF2B. In vitro experiments with phosphorylated eIF2B showed that recombinant PP1C (alpha isoform) dephosphorylates and activates eIF2B. Paralleling eIF2B activation, IGF1 treatment induced PP1 activation in a MEK/MAPK-dependent fashion. Moreover, the treatment of neurons with the PP1 inhibitor tautomycin inhibited PP1 activation and prevented IGF1-induced eIF2B activation. These findings strongly suggest that IGF1-induced eIF2B activation in neurons is effected by PP1, the activation of which is mediated by the MEK/MAPK signaling pathway.