Role of vesicle-associated membrane protein-2, through Q-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor/R-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor interaction, in the exocytosis of specific and tertiary granules of human neutrophils.
We have examined the role of the R-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) synaptobrevin-2/vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-2 in neutrophil exocytosis. VAMP-2, localized in the membranes of specific and gelatinase-containing tertiary granules in resting human neutrophils, resulted translocated to the cell surface following neutrophil activation under experimental conditions that induced exocytosis of specific and tertiary granules. VAMP-2 was also found on the external membrane region of granules docking to the plasma membrane in activated neutrophils. Specific Abs against VAMP-2 inhibited Ca(2+) and GTP-gamma-S-induced exocytosis of CD66b-enriched specific and tertiary granules, but did not affect exocytosis of CD63-enriched azurophilic granules, in electropermeabilized neutrophils. Tetanus toxin disrupted VAMP-2 and inhibited exocytosis of tertiary and specific granules. Activation of neutrophils led to the interaction of VAMP-2 with the plasma membrane Q-SNARE syntaxin 4, and anti-syntaxin 4 Abs inhibited exocytosis of specific and tertiary granules in electropermeabilized neutrophils. Immunoelectron microscopy showed syntaxin 4 on the plasma membrane contacting with docked granules in activated neutrophils. These data indicate that VAMP-2 mediates exocytosis of specific and tertiary granules, and that Q-SNARE/R-SNARE complexes containing VAMP-2 and syntaxin 4 are involved in neutrophil exocytosis.