BACKGROUND: This study examined regional cortical volumes in 6-week abstinent men dependent on crack-cocaine only (Cr) or on both crack-cocaine and alcohol (CrA). Our goal was to test the a priori hypothesis of prefrontal cortical volume reduction, along with associated impairments in frontal mediated functions, and to look for differences between the Cr and CrA groups. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and neuropsychological assessment were performed on 17 6-week abstinent Cr subjects, 29 six-week abstinent CrA subjects, and 20 normal controls. Cortical volume was quantified in the prefrontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions. RESULTS: Cr and CrA subjects showed comparable reductions in prefrontal gray matter volume compared to controls; this reduction was negatively associated with performance impairments in the executive function domain. CONCLUSIONS: Dependence on Cr (with or without concomitant alcohol dependence) was associated with reduced prefrontal cortical volume. Cr dependence with concomitant alcohol dependence was not associated with greater prefrontal volume reductions than Cr dependence alone. The existence of these findings at 6-week abstinence indicates that they are not a result of acute cocaine or alcohol exposure. The association of reduced prefrontal cortical volume with cognitive impairments in frontal cortex mediated abilities suggests that this reduced cerebral volume has functional consequences.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.