We have updated our privacy policy. If you have any question, contact us at privacy@scicrunch.org. Dismiss and don't show again

Searching across hundreds of databases

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13.

Immunity | Jul 1, 2002

Functional redundancy is highly prevalent among the Th2 interleukins (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. To define the critical functions of these cytokines, we have generated a novel panel of compound Th2 cytokine-deficient mice (from single to quadruple cytokine knockouts). We find that these Th2 cytokines are not essential for fetal survival even during allogeneic pregnancy. Using intestinal parasite infection and a pulmonary granuloma model, we demonstrate cryptic roles for IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 in these responses. Significantly, although IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 add to the speed and magnitude of the response, a threshold is reached at which IL-4 alone can activate all Th2 effector functions. These mice reveal distinct spatial, temporal, and hierarchical cytokine requirements in immune function.

Pubmed ID: 12150887 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Animals, Newborn | Eosinophilia | Female | Goblet Cells | Granuloma, Respiratory Tract | Immunoglobulin E | Interleukin-13 | Interleukin-4 | Interleukin-5 | Interleukin-9 | Kinetics | Mastocytosis | Mice | Mice, Inbred BALB C | Mice, Inbred C57BL | Mice, Knockout | Nippostrongylus | Pregnancy | Strongylida Infections | Survival Analysis | Th2 Cells

Research resources used in this publication

None found

Research tools detected in this publication

None found

Data used in this publication

None found

Associated grants


Mouse Genome Informatics (Data, Gene Annotation)

Publication data is provided by the National Library of Medicine ® and PubMed ®. Data is retrieved from PubMed ® on a weekly schedule. For terms and conditions see the National Library of Medicine Terms and Conditions.

We have not found any resources mentioned in this publication.