Potential role of nuclear factor kappaB and reactive oxygen species in cAMP and cytokine regulation of surfactant protein-A gene expression in lung type II cells.
The human surfactant protein-A2 (hSP-A2) gene is developmentally regulated, expressed in type II pneumonocytes, and induced by cAMP. cAMP induction of hSP-A2 expression is O2 dependent and mediated by increased phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). The TTF-1-binding element (TBE) at -175 bp contains a reverse-oriented nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding site. IL-1 increased SP-A expression in lung type II cells and had additive stimulatory effects with cAMP. Nuclear extracts from cAMP- or IL-1-treated type II cells manifested increased binding to NF-kappaB consensus and TBE probes; cAMP and IL-1 had additive effects. Competitive and antibody supershift EMSA revealed that NF-kappaB and TTF-1 interact with TBE. IL-1 treatment of type II cells caused rapid (1 h) increases in nuclear levels of NF-kappaB (p50 and p65) and in binding to NF-kappaB and TBE probes; nuclear levels of TTF-1 were unaffected. Bt2cAMP increased binding to NF-kappaB and TBE probes more slowly; no changes in nuclear levels of p50, p65, or TTF-1 were evident, suggesting that IL-1 and cAMP act by different mechanisms. A role for endogenous NF-kappaB in cAMP and IL-1 regulation of SP-A was suggested by findings that dominant-negative forms of inhibitor of kappaB reduced binding of type II cell nuclear proteins to TBE and inhibited SP-A expression. In cotransfection assays, NF-kappaB and TTF-1 cooperatively interacted at TBE to stimulate SP-A promoter activity; this was further enhanced by IL-1. In coimmunoprecipitation assays using type II cell nuclear extracts, TTF-1 was found to interact with p65 in vivo. Finally, antioxidant inhibitors of NF-kappaB reduced type II cell nuclear protein binding to TBE and blocked stimulatory effects of cAMP on SP-A expression. This provides intriguing evidence that permissive effects of O2/reactive oxygen species on cAMP regulation of SP-A expression may be mediated by cooperative interactions of TTF-1 and NF-kappaB at the TBE.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.