EDD, the human hyperplastic discs protein, has a role in progesterone receptor coactivation and potential involvement in DNA damage response.
The ubiquitin-protein ligase EDD encodes an orthologue of the hyperplastic discs tumor suppressor gene, which has a critical role in Drosophila development. Frequent allelic imbalance at the EDD chromosomal locus in human cancers suggests a role in tumorigenesis. In addition to a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) domain, the EDD protein contains a UBR1 zinc finger motif and ubiquitin-associated domain, each of which indicates involvement in ubiquitinylation pathways. This study shows that EDD interacts with importin alpha 5 through consensus basic nuclear localization signals and is localized in cell nuclei. EDD also binds progesterone receptor (PR) and potentiates progestin-mediated gene transactivation. This activity is comparable with that of the coactivator SRC-1, but, in contrast, the interaction between EDD and PR does not appear to involve an LXXLL receptor-binding motif. EDD also binds calcium- and integrin-binding protein/DNA-dependent protein kinase-interacting protein, a potential target of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and an altered association is found between EDD and calcium- and integrin-binding protein/DNA-dependent protein kinase-interacting protein in response to DNA damage. The data presented here demonstrate a role for EDD in PR signaling but also suggest a link to cancer through DNA damage response pathways.