APS is a Cbl-binding protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated by the insulin receptor kinase. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of tyrosine 618 in APS is necessary for its association with c-Cbl and the subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl by the insulin receptor in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and CHO-IR cells. When overexpressed in these cells, wild-type APS but not an APS/Y(618)F mutant facilitated the tyrosine phosphorylation of coexpressed Cbl and its association with Crk upon insulin stimulation. APS-facilitated phosphorylation occurred on tyrosines 371, 700, and 774 in the Cbl protein. APS also interacted directly with the c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP) and colocalized with the protein in cells. The association was dependent on the SH3 domains of CAP and was independent of insulin treatment. Overexpression of the APS/Y(618)F mutant in 3T3-L1 adipocytes blocked the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous Cbl and binding to Crk. Moreover, the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by overexpression of the APS/Y(618)F mutant. These data suggest that APS serves as an adapter protein linking the CAP/Cbl pathway to the insulin receptor and, further, that APS-facilitated Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation catalyzed by the insulin receptor is a crucial event in the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin.
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