Severe impairment of interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signalling in mice lacking IRAK-4.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and members of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, share homologies in their cytoplasmic domains called Toll/IL-1R/plant R gene homology (TIR) domains. Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6 (refs 9, 10) having critical roles. Signal transduction between MyD88 and TRAF6 is known to involve the serine-threonine kinase IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) and two homologous proteins, IRAK-2 (ref. 12) and IRAK-M. However, the physiological functions of the IRAK molecules remain unclear, and gene-targeting studies have shown that IRAK-1 is only partially required for IL-1R and TLR signalling. Here we show by gene-targeting that IRAK-4, an IRAK molecule closely related to the Drosophila Pelle protein, is indispensable for the responses of animals and cultured cells to IL-1 and ligands that stimulate various TLRs. IRAK-4-deficient animals are completely resistant to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, animals lacking IRAK-4 are severely impaired in their responses to viral and bacterial challenges. Our results indicate that IRAK-4 has an essential role in innate immunity.
Pubmed ID: 11923871 RIS Download
Animals | Arenaviridae Infections | B-Lymphocytes | Cells, Cultured | Drosophila Proteins | Gene Deletion | Immunity, Innate | Interferon-gamma | Interleukin-1 | Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases | Interleukin-6 | JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases | Killer Cells, Natural | Ligands | Lipopolysaccharides | Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus | Macrophages | Membrane Glycoproteins | Mice | Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases | NF-kappa B | Nitric Oxide | Protein Kinases | Receptors, Cell Surface | Receptors, Interleukin-1 | Signal Transduction | Staphylococcal Infections | Staphylococcus aureus | Toll-Like Receptors | Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha | p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases