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MSK1 and MSK2 are required for the mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 in fibroblasts.

Using mouse knockouts for mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) and MSK2 and a double knockout of both MSK1 and MSK2, we show that these protein kinases are required for the stress-induced phosphorylation of transcription factors CREB and ATF1 in primary embryonic fibroblasts. In contrast mitogen-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 is greatly reduced but not totally abolished. The mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 has been linked to the transcription of several immediate early genes, including c-fos, junB, and egr1. The knockout of both MSK1 and MSK2 resulted in a 50% reduction in c-fos and junB gene transcription in response to anisomycin or UV-C radiation but only a small reduction in response to tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate or epidermal growth factor in fibroblasts. The transcription of egr1 in response to both mitogenic and stress stimuli, as well as stress-induced apoptosis, was unaffected in the MSK1/MSK2 double knockout.

Pubmed ID: 11909979


  • Wiggin GR
  • Soloaga A
  • Foster JM
  • Murray-Tait V
  • Cohen P
  • Arthur JS


Molecular and cellular biology

Publication Data

April 22, 2002

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 1
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Cell Division
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Fibroblasts
  • Genes, Immediate-Early
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases