Of the sequence comparison methods, profile-based methods perform with greater selectively than those that use pairwise comparisons. Of the profile methods, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are apparently the best. The first part of this paper describes calculations that (i) improve the performance of HMMs and (ii) determine a good procedure for creating HMMs for sequences of proteins of known structure. For a family of related proteins, more homologues are detected using multiple models built from diverse single seed sequences than from one model built from a good alignment of those sequences. A new procedure is described for detecting and correcting those errors that arise at the model-building stage of the procedure. These two improvements greatly increase selectivity and coverage. The second part of the paper describes the construction of a library of HMMs, called SUPERFAMILY, that represent essentially all proteins of known structure. The sequences of the domains in proteins of known structure, that have identities less than 95 %, are used as seeds to build the models. Using the current data, this gives a library with 4894 models. The third part of the paper describes the use of the SUPERFAMILY model library to annotate the sequences of over 50 genomes. The models match twice as many target sequences as are matched by pairwise sequence comparison methods. For each genome, close to half of the sequences are matched in all or in part and, overall, the matches cover 35 % of eukaryotic genomes and 45 % of bacterial genomes. On average roughly 15% of genome sequences are labelled as being hypothetical yet homologous to proteins of known structure. The annotations derived from these matches are available from a public web server at: http://stash.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/SUPERFAMILY. This server also enables users to match their own sequences against the SUPERFAMILY model library.
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