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Requirement of NF-kappaB/Rel for the development of hair follicles and other epidermal appendices.

NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors and IkappaB kinases (IKK) are essential for inflammation and immune responses, but also for bone-morphogenesis, skin proliferation and differentiation. Determining their other functions has previously been impossible, owing to embryonic lethality of NF-kappaB/Rel or IKK-deficient animals. Using a gene targeting approach we have ubiquitously expressed an NF-kappaB super-repressor to investigate NF-kappaB functions in the adult. Mice with suppressed NF-kappaB revealed defective early morphogenesis of hair follicles, exocrine glands and teeth, identical to Eda (tabby) and Edar (downless) mutant mice. These affected epithelial appendices normally display high NF-kappaB activity, suppression of which resulted in increased apoptosis, indicating that NF-kappaB acts as a survival factor downstream of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family member EDAR. Furthermore, NF-kappaB is required for peripheral lymph node formation and macrophage function.

Pubmed ID: 11585809


  • Schmidt-Ullrich R
  • Aebischer T
  • Hülsken J
  • Birchmeier W
  • Klemm U
  • Scheidereit C


Development (Cambridge, England)

Publication Data

October 4, 2001

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Deafness
  • Eccrine Glands
  • Ectodysplasins
  • Edar Receptor
  • Epidermis
  • Exocrine Glands
  • Hair Follicle
  • Hepatocytes
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • Lymphatic System
  • Macrophages
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Mutation
  • NF-kappa B
  • Oncogene Proteins v-rel
  • Otitis Media
  • Receptors, Ectodysplasin
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tooth