Mapping motor inhibition: conjunctive brain activations across different versions of go/no-go and stop tasks.
Conjunction analysis methods were used in functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain regions commonly activated in subjects performing different versions of go/no-go and stop tasks, differing in probability of inhibitory signals and/or contrast conditions. Generic brain activation maps highlighted brain regions commonly activated in (a) two different go/no-go task versions, (b) three different stop task versions, and (c) all 5 inhibition task versions. Comparison between the generic activation maps of stop and go/no-go task versions revealed inhibitory mechanisms specific to go/no-go or stop task performance in 15 healthy, right-handed, male adults. In the go/no-go task a motor response had to be selectively executed or inhibited in either 50% or 30% of trials. In the stop task, the motor response to a go-stimulus had to be retracted on either 50 or 30% of trials, indicated by a stop signal, shortly (250 ms) following the go-stimulus. The shared "inhibitory" neurocognitive network by all inhibition tasks comprised mesial, medial, and inferior frontal and parietal cortices. Generic activation of the go/no-go task versions identified bilateral, but more predominantly left hemispheric mesial, medial, and inferior frontal and parietal cortices. Common activation to all stop task versions was in predominantly right hemispheric anterior cingulate, supplementary motor area, inferior prefrontal, and parietal cortices. On direct comparison between generic stop and go/no-go activation maps increased BOLD signal was observed in left hemispheric dorsolateral prefrontal, medial, and parietal cortices during the go/no-go task, presumably reflecting a left frontoparietal specialization for response selection.