Functional architecture of an intracellular membrane t-SNARE.
Lipid bilayer fusion is mediated by SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) located on the vesicle membrane (v-SNAREs) and the target membrane (t-SNAREs). The assembled v-SNARE/t-SNARE complex consists of a bundle of four helices, of which one is supplied by the v-SNARE and the other three by the t-SNARE. For t-SNAREs on the plasma membrane, the protein syntaxin supplies one helix and a SNAP-25 protein contributes the other two. Although there are numerous homologues of syntaxin on intracellular membranes, there are only two SNAP-25-related proteins in yeast, Sec9 and Spo20, both of which are localized to the plasma membrane and function in secretion and sporulation, respectively. What replaces SNAP-25 in t-SNAREs of intracellular membranes? Here we show that an intracellular t-SNARE is built from a 'heavy chain' homologous to syntaxin and two separate non-syntaxin 'light chains'. SNAP-25 may thus be the exception rather than the rule, having been derived from genes that encoded separate light chains that fused during evolution to produce a single gene encoding one protein with two helices.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.