We have identified new activating receptors of the Ig superfamily expressed on human myeloid cells, called TREM (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells). TREM-1 is selectively expressed on blood neutrophils and a subset of monocytes and is up-regulated by bacterial LPS. Engagement of TREM-1 triggers secretion of IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and TNF-alpha and induces neutrophil degranulation. Intracellularly, TREM-1 induces Ca2+ mobilization and tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2 and phospholipase C-gamma. To mediate activation, TREM-1 associates with the transmembrane adapter molecule DAP12. Thus, TREM-1 mediates activation of neutrophil and monocytes, and may have a predominant role in inflammatory responses.
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