Assembly of a complex containing Cdc45p, replication protein A, and Mcm2p at replication origins controlled by S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases and Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, replication origins are activated with characteristic timing during S phase. S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases (S-CDKs) and Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase are required for origin activation throughout S phase. The activation of S-CDKs leads to association of Cdc45p with chromatin, raising the possibility that Cdc45p defines the assembly of a new complex at each origin. Here we show that both Cdc45p and replication protein A (RPA) bind to Mcm2p at the G(1)-S transition in an S-CDK-dependent manner. During S phase, Cdc45p associates with different replication origins at specific times. The origin associations of Cdc45p and RPA are mutually dependent, and both S-CDKs and Cdc7p-Dbf4p are required for efficient binding of Cdc45p to origins. These findings suggest that S-CDKs and Cdc7p-Dbf4p promote loading of Cdc45p and RPA onto a preformed prereplication complex at each origin with preprogrammed timing. The ARS1 association of Mcm2p, but not that of the origin recognition complex, is diminished by disruption of the B2 element of ARS1, a potential origin DNA-unwinding element. Cdc45p is required for recruiting DNA polymerase alpha onto chromatin, and it associates with Mcm2p, RPA, and DNA polymerase epsilon only during S phase. These results suggest that the complex containing Cdc45p, RPA, and MCMs is involved in origin unwinding and assembly of replication forks at each origin.