From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen receptor NH(2)-terminal associated coactivator.
The androgen receptor (AR), like other steroid receptors, modulates the activity of the general transcription machinery on the core promoter to exert its function as a regulator. Co-immunoprecipitation of prostate cancer LNCaP cell extract using protein A-Sepharose coupled with anti-AR antibody indicates that the AR interacts with the general transcription factor TFIIH in a physiological condition. Co-transfection of cdk activating kinase (CAK), the kinase moiety of TFIIH, enhanced AR-mediated transcription in a ligand-dependent manner in human prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells, and in a ligand-independent manner in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Detailed interaction studies further revealed that the AR NH(2)-terminal domain interacting with CAK was essential for the CAK-induced AR transactivation. Together, our data suggest that the AR may interact with TFIIH for efficient communication with the general transcription factors/RNA polymerase II on the core promoter.