The C terminus of SNAP25 is essential for Ca(2+)-dependent binding of synaptotagmin to SNARE complexes.
The plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins syntaxin and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) and the vesicle SNARE protein vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) are essential for a late Ca(2+)-dependent step in regulated exocytosis, but their precise roles and regulation by Ca(2+) are poorly understood. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) E, a protease that cleaves SNAP25 at Arg(180)-Ile(181), completely inhibits this late step in PC12 cell membranes, whereas BoNT A, which cleaves SNAP25 at Gln(197)-Arg(198), is only partially inhibitory. The difference in toxin effectiveness was found to result from a reversal of BoNT A but not BoNT E inhibition by elevated Ca(2+) concentrations. BoNT A treatment essentially increased the Ca(2+) concentration required to activate exocytosis, which suggested a role for the C terminus of SNAP25 in the Ca(2+) regulation of exocytosis. Synaptotagmin, a proposed Ca(2+) sensor for exocytosis, was found to bind SNAP25 in a Ca(2+)-stimulated manner. Ca(2+)-dependent binding was abolished by BoNT E treatment, whereas BoNT A treatment increased the Ca(2+) concentration required for binding. The C terminus of SNAP25 was also essential for Ca(2+)-dependent synaptotagmin binding to SNAP25. syntaxin and SNAP25.syntaxin.VAMP SNARE complexes. These results clarify classical observations on the Ca(2+) reversal of BoNT A inhibition of neurosecretion, and they suggest that an essential role for the C terminus of SNAP25 in regulated exocytosis is to mediate Ca(2+)-dependent interactions between synaptotagmin and SNARE protein complexes.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.