Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 inhibition of insulin receptor function occurs via direct interaction with the receptor alpha-subunit.
Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 (PC-1) inhibits insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent cellular signaling. PC-1 content is elevated in fibroblasts, muscle, and adipose tissue from insulin-resistant subjects, and its elevation correlates with in vivo insulin resistance. In vitro, when PC-1 is transfected and overexpressed in cultured cells, it inhibits IR tyrosine kinase activity. To determine the mechanism whereby PC-1 regulates the IR, we studied how PC-1 interacts with this protein. Overexpression of PC-1 in MCF-7 cells inhibited tyrosine kinase activity of the IR, but not of the IGF-I receptor. When the IR was immunocaptured by specific IR monoclonal antibodies, PC-1 was associated with this receptor. In contrast, after specific immunocapture, PC-1 was not associated with the IGF-I receptor. We next studied HTC cells that were overexpressing an IR alpha-subunit mutant. This IR mutant binds insulin but has a deletion in the tyrosine kinase regulatory domain located in amino acids 485-599. In contrast to normal IRs, PC-1 did not associate with this mutant and did not affect tyrosine kinase activity. To determine whether decreasing PC-1 expression would reverse the inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity, we treated MCF-7 cells overexpressing PC-1 with a monoclonal antibody to PC-1. This treatment decreased PC-1 levels; concomitantly, IR tyrosine kinase activity increased. In contrast, IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase activity was not increased. These studies indicate, therefore, that PC-1 may inhibit the IR by interacting directly with a specific region in the IR alpha-subunit. These studies also raise the possibility that monoclonal antibodies to PC-1 could be a new treatment for insulin resistance.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.