CD134 (OX40) is a member of the TNF receptor family that is expressed on activated T lymphocytes. T cells from mice that lack expression of CD134 made strong responses to a range of challenges, but they showed impaired proliferation in response to direct stimulation through the TCR with monoclonal anti-CD3epsilon Ab. CD134-deficient mice controlled infection with Leishmania major, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, and they made overtly normal Ab responses to a variety of antigens. Thus, CD134 is not essential for many T cell responses in vivo, nor is it required for the provision of help to B cells. Nonetheless, a subtle role in the regulation of T cell reactivity is suggested by the effect of CD134 deficiency on in vitro T cell responses.
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