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Phosphorylation and regulation of Raf by Akt (protein kinase B).

Activation of the protein kinase Raf can lead to opposing cellular responses such as proliferation, growth arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation. Akt (protein kinase B), a member of a different signaling pathway that also regulates these responses, interacted with Raf and phosphorylated this protein at a highly conserved serine residue in its regulatory domain in vivo. This phosphorylation of Raf by Akt inhibited activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway and shifted the cellular response in a human breast cancer cell line from cell cycle arrest to proliferation. These observations provide a molecular basis for cross talk between two signaling pathways at the level of Raf and Akt.

Pubmed ID: 10576742


  • Zimmermann S
  • Moelling K


Science (New York, N.Y.)

Publication Data

November 26, 1999

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line
  • Chromones
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Flavonoids
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Morpholines
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Phosphorylation
  • Phosphoserine
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Somatomedins
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • ras Proteins