A novel human complex that can either repress activator-dependent transcription mediated by PC4, or, at limiting TFIIH, act synergistically with PC4 to enhance activator-dependent transcription has been purified. This complex contains homologs of a subset of yeast mediator/holoenzyme components (including SRB7, SRB10, SRB11, MED6, and RGR1), homologs of other yeast transcriptional regulatory factors (SOH1 and NUT2), and, significantly, some components (TRAP220, TRAP170/hRGR1, and TRAP100) of a human thyroid hormone receptor-associated coactivator complex. The complex shows direct activator interactions but, unlike yeast mediator, can act independently of the RNA polymerase II CTD. These findings demonstrate both positive and negative functional capabilities for the human complex, emphasize novel (CTD-independent) regulatory mechanisms, and link the complex to other human coactivator complexes.
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